ACEA’s oil sequences provide a core specification for oil manufacturers to ensure their products are compatible with the latest developments in engine technology

ACEA

A Specification of Global Importance

  • About ACEA 2016
  • ACEA Videos
  • About the ACEA Sequences
  • The ACEA E Sequences
  • ACEA E4 - 16
  • ACEA E6 - 16
  • ACEA E7 - 16
  • ACEA E9 - 16

ACEA 2016

ACEA 2016

The ACEA Sequences make up some of the lubricant industry’s most important performance standards. Their importance and influence continue to grow beyond Europe, and the ACEA 2016 update is an important step for the global lubricant industry. ACEA 2016 was published 1st December 2016 and marks the first update since 2012, a break from the specification’s typical biennial update schedule. This means a substantial increase in required performance from ACEA 2012 to ACEA 2016 and the industry must be prepared.

Lubrizol has been deeply engaged with the industry as ACEA evolves once again, and is invested in developing the solutions OEMs, oil marketers and end users need. Here’s what you need to know:

Committed to today, and tomorrow.

Lubrizol recognizes ACEA 2016 is a considerable upgrade in performance and quality for passenger car and heavy duty-diesel engine oils. And with the upgrade comes new opportunity for oil marketers to further differentiate with lubricants that meet and exceed the ACEA 2016 sequences.

With deep involvement in ACEA sequence development groups and with new tests installed internally, Lubrizol is staying ahead of the specification in order to develop data-backed solutions for our customers. Success in today’s industry depends on higher performance, and Lubrizol is committed to helping our partners get there.

Click below to find out more about the ACEA 2016 upgrade for heavy-duty diesel engines, together with how the market is moving to the need for more fuel efficient lower viscosity lubricants

What is the background to the ACEA Oil Sequences for heavy-duty engines?

Heavy-Duty Vehicles (HDVs) continue to play a vital role in the global economy whilst having a resulting impact on the environment through greenhouse gas emissions.

Vehicle productivity and total cost of ownership is paramount for fleet operators and the role of the lubricant continues to be recognized as one of the key factors in supporting these goals.

The minimum quality level of service-fill oils demanded by the European Automobile Manufacturers' Association (ACEA) members for use in their vehicles, are classified by the A,B and C Oil Sequences for passenger cars gasoline and light duty diesel engines, with the E Oil Sequences covering heavy-duty diesel engines.

The drive to improved durability has led to the continuing evolution of the ACEA E Oil Sequences. Moving forward, the drive will be the move to increased efficiency whilst maintaining durability.

What are the drivers for the ACEA 2016 E Oil Sequence upgrade?

For heavy-duty diesel engines, three main drivers have led to an upgrade to the latest ACEA E Sequences, which were last published in December 2012.

Firstly, the wider use of biodiesel and alternative fuels such as methanol and ethanol has been creating oxidation and cleanliness concerns by engine manufacturers. Secondly, new engine platforms have a more efficient fuel combustion process, which are generating higher temperatures and also lower levels of soot. Finally, latest engines are using newer and more advanced elastomeric materials; whilst at the same time recognizing older elastomers have been impacted by Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) legislation.

All these changes are being incorporated into the ACEA 2016 E Oil Sequences upgrade which came into effect in 1st December 2016.

What are the key test changes with the ACEA 2016 E Oil Sequence?

1. Firstly, a new OM646LA biodiesel engine test has been introduced, which assesses protection against biodiesel related oil degradation and deposits in modern diesel engines. It is being introduced because increasing biodiesel content has led to oil starvation and engine failure in cold conditions, since biodiesel tends to cause thickening and oxidation. This impacts the ACEA E9 and ACEA E6 categories.

2. Next, a new bench test for biodiesel oxidation, which assesses protection against biodiesel related oil degradation and viscosity increase in diesel engines. Again, it is being introduced because of the increasing biodiesel content leading to oil starvation and engine failure in cold conditions.

3. Additionally, new elastomer materials in modern engine hardware has necessitated the development of new oil-elastomer compatibility bench tests and the process has been catalysed by the potential toxicity of materials presently used in the ACEA 2012 Oil Sequences. ACEA 2016 has a number of new elastomeric materials with new performance limits which ensures the engine oil does not adversely affect the components such as seals, gaskets and rings with regard to cracking, swelling, shrinkage and hardening.

4. Finally, a change in engine testing where the Mack T-11 is being replaced by the Mack T-8E as the latest Euro VI diesel engines typically produce only ~1% soot during an oil drain interval, so a high soot loading test is no longer relevant. This change impacts the ACEA E9 category and brings it in line with the other E Sequences that already use the Mack T-8E.


What does the ACEA 2016 E Oil Sequence upgrade mean to lubricant quality?

All of these changes are resulting in an upgrade in the quality and performance of heavy-duty diesel engine oils meeting the latest service-fill requirements, which represents an opportunity for all stakeholders throughout the supply chain.

The ACEA 2016 upgrade came into effect December 2016. What this means in reality is that the industry has until December 2017 where new claims can still be made based on the current ACEA 2012. After 2 years all claims must be based on ACEA 2016.

Importantly, while the approval claims do not allow oil marketers to state the ACEA 2016 year on the labels of their branded products, the opportunity exists to more readily promote oils which are approved to the latest ACEA 2016 in their marketing materials and marketing claims, so promoting the higher performance these oils provide to the fleets.

What next in the drive to lower emissions and increased fuel efficiency?

For passenger cars and light commercial vehicles, target emission limits are here already and getting progressively tighter; whilst there is currently no system of measurement for CO2 emissions from HDVs across Europe. It is likely the European Union will be seeking to initially introduce engine efficiency targets and then move wider to cover the full vehicle, using VECTO, the computer simulation tool to estimate fuel consumption and CO2 emissions for the whole vehicle.

When this legislation is in force the EU Commission may consider further measures to curb CO2 emissions from HDVs. The most apparent option is to set mandatory limits on average CO2 emissions from newly-registered HDVs, as is already done for cars and Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs).

As the drive to reduced emissions and increased fuel efficiency continues, changes in engine hardware design also continues, including downsizing, down speeding, stop/start technology and variable valve timing to name a few.

The relevance of High Temperature High Shear (HTHS)

With changes in engine hardware design, lubricants are having to perform in high temperature high shear (HTHS) environments, notably in the camshaft, journal bearing piston ring and liner areas.

Today, HTHS – or specifically low HTHS - is a key word being synonymous with increased fuel efficiency.

Whilst not new, with limits being explicitly defined within SAE J300 as far back as the early 1990’s, HTHS viscosity is the current industry standard test that best predicts fluid behaviour in high temperature, high shear environments where the measured number gives the temporary viscosity loss of a lubricant under high shear at elevated temperatures representative of engine operating conditions

The number measures the resistance to flow of the oil, simulating the narrow tolerances between moving parts in a hot engine. The lower the number, the lower the HTHS viscosity of the oil and in turn the greater the increase in predicted fuel efficiency.

Traditionally, heavy-duty diesel engine oils have had minimum HTHS viscosity rates of 3.5 mPa.s - also commonly referred in centipoise (cP) - and all of the current ACEA E, including the updated ACEA 2016 E Sequences have this minimum limit.

European OEMs are driving toward lower HTHS viscosity lubricants in order to deliver increased fuel efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions, where the engine oil can both enable efficiency improvements in hardware design as well as directly contributing to increased fuel economy.

The move to lower HTHS viscosity lubricants

Given OEMs are driving toward lower HTHS viscosity lubricants in order to deliver increased fuel efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions, a new fuel economy category is being proposed to incorporate into the ACEA heavy-duty category, being driven by the OEMs as they incorporate the benefits lower HTHS lubricants can provide in their modern engine hardware designs.

Looking in other parts of the world and specifically to the American Petroleum Institute following a request by OEMs back in 2011, a new fuel economy category saw first license in December 2016.

The longstanding API CJ-4 category is being directly superseded by API CK-4, which delivers performance way beyond API CJ-4, driven by new technology and verified stringent testing. Greater oxidation and aeration limits with increased shear stability provide greater protection for all engines.

At the same time, a new ‘fuel efficient’ category has been introduced. API FA-4 requires passing all the same performance tests as for API CK-4, with the addition of a limit of between 2.9 and 3.2 cP HTHS viscosity.

So for heavy-duty vehicles, the discussion around lower HTHS is not altogether new and products have been under development for several years in preparation for this new low HTHS viscosity category within API.

In Europe, Mercedes-Benz MB-Approval 228.61 is the first service fill ‘low HTHS’ European OEM specification for engine oils. As well as having increased durability protection requirements, the specification has more stringent fuel economy limits, along with the requirement to meet the recently introduced API FA-4 with a HTHS viscosity between 2.9 and 3.2 cP.

Lower HTHS specifications are coming from other OEMs and it is important to note that each OEM will confirm any backward compatibility these higher performance lubricants have on their existing engines.

Will there be new ACEA heavy-duty fuel economy categories?

Given the increasing drive to lower HTHS viscosity lubricants by European OEMs, two ACEA ‘fuel economy’ categories have been proposed delivering additional fuel efficiency benefits whilst ensuring engine protection is not compromised.

These new fuel efficient categories will be low HTHS viscosity variants (typically between 2.9 and 3.2 cP and in line with the new API FA-4 category) of an upgraded ACEA E6 and ACEA E9 categories (potentially in ACEA 2018), which will add an additional Mack T-13 test for oxidation control, recognising that today’s engines are running at significantly higher operating temperatures than previous engine designs.

These updates to the ACEA E6 and ACEA E9 categories may potentially be named ACEA E8 and ACEA E11 respectively, with the low HTHS viscosity categories potentially being named ACEA F8 and ACEA F11.

As well as having lower HTHS viscosity, it is anticipated the ACEA F categories will include at least one low soot wear test, recognising the lower levels of soot being produced in today’s modern engine hardware designs.

Whilst not confirmed, the introduction date of the new fuel economy ACEA Oil Sequences is likely to be in 2018, however the implementation date could be as early as 2017 depending on final specification content; recognising the impetus that is being gained in using lower HTHS viscosity engine lubricants.

At the same time, market education will be key, ensuring awareness of the differences in HTHS viscosity oils, as well as understanding those oils which are suitable for specific engines. The service symbol donuts from the API with clearly differentiated labels between the split HTHS viscosity categories is a good example of how these can visually be represented.

How do these changes affect the role of the engine lubricant?

The engine lubricant itself comprises three fundamental elements: the additive package, performance polymer and base oil.

As the durability protection under high temperature high shear environments is reduced, new additive technology is essential to enable the move to low HTHS engine lubricants. When moving to low HTHS viscosity solutions, the additive and performance polymer have a more significant role to play in the overall formulation.

Lubrizol has many years of proven experience in developing and commercialising low HTHS technology. In heavy-duty diesel engines this includes the North American introduction of the new low HTHS category API FA-4 (formerly called PC-11B) previously mentioned. With over 40 million kilometres of real world driving (and still counting), Lubrizol has developed the knowledge and know-how in moving to low HTHS solutions and is ready to engage with its partners to exploit the full opportunities low HTHS heavy-duty diesel lubricants have to offer.

Summary

ACEA 2016 represents a further upgrade in performance in terms of durability and protection.

OEMs also continue to upgrade their service-fill specifications for their modern hardware requirements for increased efficiency without compromising durability.

As important as ever is the need for an integrated approach between the hardware technology and the engine lubricant; where lubricants enable hardware changes as well as directly contributing to increased fuel efficiency and lower emissions.

Importantly, it is not just about lower viscosity grade oils. The move to lower HTHS viscosity oils requires design, development and formulation changes, where performance additives and performance polymers have a key and fundamental role when moving to lower HTHS solutions.

One where the opportunity exists for all stakeholders to move to higher performing lubricants in the drive toward increased efficiency without compromising durability.


The Oil Sequences define the minimum quality level for service fill engine oils for gasoline, light duty diesel and heavy duty diesel engines. Since their introduction in 1996 the Oil Sequences have been updated periodically as shown below.

Issue YearFirst UseNew Claims ByWithdrawn
ACEA 19961st Mar 1996

1st Mar 1997
1st Mar 2000

ACEA 19981st Mar 19981st Mar 19991st Mar 2002
ACEA 19991st Sept 19991st Sept 200028th Feb 2004
ACEA 20021st Feb 200228th Feb 20031st Nov 2006
ACEA 20041st Nov 20041st Nov 200631st Dec 2009
ACEA 200728th Feb 200728th Feb 200822nd Dec 2010
ACEA 200822nd Dec 200822nd Dec 200922nd Dec 2012
ACEA 201022nd Dec 201022nd Dec 201122nd Dec 2014
ACEA 201214th Dec 201214th Dec 20131st December 2018
ACEA 20161st December 20161st Dec 2017

ACEA A/B Sequences

These define the requirements for engine oils for service fill usage in passenger car gasoline and light-duty diesel engines.

ACEA C Sequences

These define the requirements for “catalyst compatible” engine oils for service fill usage in passenger car gasoline and light-duty diesel engines with aftertreatment systems.

ACEA E Sequences

These define the requirements for engine oils for service fill usage in heavy duty diesel engines.
Each new issue of the Oil Sequences may include a new sequence, an increase in severity for an existing sequence or a change in testing with no change in severity. Depending upon the type of change the nomenclature used by ACEA as a suffix to the category name changes. The table below summarises the changes that have occurred for each of the Oil Sequences.

 A SequencesB SequencesC SequencesE Sequences
ACEA 1996A1-96, A2-96, A3-96B1-96, B2-96, B3-96-E1-96, E2-96, E3-96
ACEA 1998A1-98, A2-96 #2, A3-98B1-98, B2-98, B3-98, B4-98-E1-96#2, E2-96#2, E3-96#2, E4-98
ACEA 1999A1-98, A2-96 #2, A3-98B1-98, B2-98, B3-98, B4-98-E2-96#2, E3-96#2, E4-99, E5-99
ACEA 2002A1-02, A2-96 #3, A3-02, A5-02B1-02, B2-98#2, B3-98#2, B4-02, B5-02-E2-96#3, E3-96#3, E4-99, E5-99
ACEA 2004A1/B1-04, A3/B3-04A3/B4-04, A5/B5-04C1-04, C2-04, C3-04E2-96#5, E4-99#3, E6-04, E7-04
ACEA 2007A1/B1-04, A3/B3-04A3/B4-04, A5/B5-04C1-04, C2-04, C3-07, C4-07E2-96#5, E4-07, E6-04#2, E7-04#2
ACEA 2008A1/B1-08, A3/B3-08A3/B4-08, A5/B5-08C1-08, C2-08, C3-08, C4-08E4-08, E6-08, E7-08, E9-08
ACEA 2010A1/B1-10, A3/B3-10A3/B4-10, A5/B5-08C1-10, C2-10, C3-10, C4-10E4-08#2, E6-08#2, E7-08, E9-08#2
ACEA 2012A1/B1-12, A3/B3-12A3/B4-12, A5/B5-12C1-12, C2-12, C3-12, C4-12E4-12, E6-12, E7-12, E9, 12
ACEA 2016A3/B3-16A3/B4-16, A5/B5-16C1-16, C2-16, C3-16, C4-16, C5-16E4-16, E6-16, E7-16, E9-16
#=Issue Number

The European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA) released the latest version of the European Oil Sequences on the 1st December 2016.

This issue of the Oil Sequences demands improved robustness from automotive engine oils, and focuses heavily on biodiesel compatibility. Some sequences have been removed (A1/B1) and other added (C5). A number of new tests have been introduced, and some removed.

ACEA 2016 represents a further upgrade to service fill engine oil requirements since the introduction of the Sequences in 1996 and some oils will be unable to meet these new challenges.

These define the requirements for engine oils for service fill usage in heavy duty diesel engines.

Each new issue of the Oil Sequences may include a new sequence, an increase in severity for an existing sequence or a change in testing with no change in severity. Depending upon the type of change the nomenclature used by ACEA as a suffix to the category name changes. The table below summarizes the changes that have occurred for each of the Oil Sequences.

ACEA Sequence E CategoriesACEA SequenceE Categories
ACEA 2016E4-16, E6-16, E7-16, E9-16
ACEA 2004E2-96#5, E4-99#3, E6-04, E7-04
ACEA 2012E4-12, E6-12, E7-12, E9-12
ACEA 2002E2-96#3, E3-96#3, E4-99, E5-99
ACEA 2010E4-08#2, E6-08#2, E7-08#2, E9-08#2
ACEA 1999E2-96#3, E3-96#3, E4-99, E5-99
ACEA 2008E4-08, E6-08, E7-08, E9-08
ACEA 1998E1-96#2, E2-96#2, E3-96#2, E4-98
ACEA 2007E2-96#5, E4-07, E6-04#2, E7-04#2ACEA 1996E1-96, E2-96, E3-96

The table below outlines the relevance of the ACEA E categories across different parts of the world.

ACEA E7ACEA E9ACEA E4ACEA E6
North AmericaA legacy tier of mainly 15W-40 engine oils designed for use in vehicles without aftertreatment devices like DPF and SCR. Often combined with API CI-4. Designated SHPD.A premium market tier of mainly 15W-40 and 10W-30 engine oils designed for use in medium severity operations. Suitable for use in vehicles fitted with DPFs and SCR . Often combined with API CJ-4. Designated SHPD*.Represents an ultra high performance diesel category and the highest level of engine oil performance seen in the global heavy duty diesel market. E4s are capable of extended drain oils suitable for use in vehicles without a DPF and SCR.Represents an ultra high performance diesel category and the highest level of engine oil performance seen in the global heavy duty diesel market. E6s are capable of extended drain low SAPS* oils suitable for use in vehicles fitted with a DPF and SCR.
ACEA E7ACEA E9ACEA E4ACEA E6
Europe, Africa & Middle EastA premium market tier of mainly 15W-40 engine oils designed for use in medium severity applications in vehicles without a DPF. Often combined with API CI-4. Designated SHPD*.A premium market tier of mainly 15W-40 engine oils designed for use in medium severity operations. Suitable for use in vehicles fitted with DPFs. Often combined with API CJ-4. Designated SHPD*.
Represents an ultra high performance diesel category and the highest level of engine oil performance seen in the global heavy duty diesel market. Predominantly 10W-40. E4s are extended drain oils suitable for use in vehicles without a DPFRepresents an ultra high performance diesel category and the highest level of engine oil performance seen in the global heavy duty diesel market. Predominantly 10W-40 formulated with group III. E6s are extended drain low SAPS* oils suitable for use in vehicles fitted with a DPF.
ACEA E7ACEA E9ACEA E4ACEA E6
Asia
A premium market tier of mainly 15W-40 engine oils designed for use in medium severity operations. Often combined with API CI-4. Designated SHPD*.A premium market tier of mainly 15W-40 engine oils designed for use in medium severity operations. Suitable for use in vehicles fitted with DPFs. Often combined with API CJ-4. Designated SHPD*.Represents an ultra high performance diesel category and the highest level of engine oil performance seen in the global heavy duty diesel market. Predominantly 10W-40 formulated with group III. E4s are extended drain oils suitable for use in vehicles without a DPF.Represents an ultra high performance diesel category and the highest level of engine oil performance seen in the global heavy duty diesel market. Predominantly 10W-40 formulated with group III. E6s are extended drain low SAPS* oils suitable for use in vehicles fitted with a DPF.
ACEA E7ACEA E9ACEA E4ACEA E6
South AmericaA premium market tier of mainly 15W-40 engine oils designed for use in medium severity operations. Often combined with API CI-4. Designated SHPD*.A premium market tier of mainly 15W-40 engine oils designed for use in medium severity operations. Suitable for use in vehicles fitted with DPFs. Often combined with API CJ-4. Designated SHPD*.Represents an ultra high performance diesel category and the highest level of engine oil performance seen in the global heavy duty diesel market. Predominantly 10W-40 formulated with group III. E4s are extended drain oils suitable for use in vehicles without a DPF.Represents an ultra high performance diesel category and the highest level of engine oil performance seen in the global heavy duty diesel market. Predominantly 10W-40 formulated with group III. E6s are extended drain low SAPS* oils suitable for use in vehicles fitted with a DPF.
*SAPS = Sulphated ash, Phosphorus and Ash
*SHPD = Super High Performance Diesel

Overview

ACEA E4-16 oils are Ultra High Performance Diesel (UHPD) lubricants designed for use in severe duty, long-drain applications.

The main physical and chemical requirements for ACEA E4-16 are shown below.

RequirementMethodUnitLimit
HTHS viscosityCEC L-36-A-90mPa.s3.5
Sulphated AshASTM D874%wt2.0
Evaporation loss (NOACK)CEC L-40-A-93%13
Total Base NumberASTM D2896mgKOH/g12

ACEA E4-16 is usually coupled with Daimler MB-Approval 228.5 and MAN 3277, MTU Oil Category 3 and Deutz DQC IV-10.

Daimler, MAN, MTU and Deutz performance specifications build on top of an ACEA E4-16 baseline with additional performance requirements in areas such as wear protection. Daimler MB-Approval 228.5 also specifies an ash level of 1.0-2.0% which prevents low ash formulations from carrying the same approval.

Changes

ACEA E4 was first introduced into the ACEA Oil Sequences in 1998. Although the testing requirements for ACEA E4 have been updated with each issue of the sequences it was not until 2008 that the severity was increased. This was due to the replacement of older engine tests with new engine tests.

A number of further changes to the requirements for ACEA E4-16 have been included in the ACEA 2016 issue of the oil sequences.

The changes for ACEA E4-16 are summarised below:

TestChange for ACEA 2016
CEC L-112New elastomers for the oil elastomer compatibility tests
CEC L-109New oxidation test with biodiesel
CEC L-085-99 (PDSC)Limits established for ACEA E4
Shear StabilityTest can now be run using CEC L-014-93 or ASTM D7019 for 30 cycles, and ASTM D7019 only for 90 cycles

Relative Performance

ACEA E4-16 and ACEA E6-16

The relative performance diagrams presented below compare Lubrizol's interpretation of the performance of requirements of the ACEA 2016 E4-16 oil sequence with the ACEA 2016 E6-16 oil sequence.

This comparison illustrates how both sequences are expected to provide similar performance in terms of bore polish, wear protection, soot handling and piston cleanliness. However, ACEA E6-16 is designed to have a greater level of corrosion protection and the highest level of compatibility with advanced exhaust aftertreatment systems.


ACEA-E6-16-vs-E4-16

ACEA E4-16 and ACEA E7-16

The relative performance diagrams presented below compare Lubrizol's interpretation of the performance of requirements of the ACEA 2016 E4-16 oil sequence with the ACEA 2016 E7-16 oil sequence.


ACEA-E4-16-vs-E7-16

This comparison illustrates how both sequences are expected to provide different performance with ACEA E4-16 providing similar bore polishing but greater piston cleanliness than ACEA E7-16. ACEA E7-16 provides a higher level of performance in terms of wear protection, soot handling and corrosion protection.

Click here to see Lubrizol’s Relative Performance Tool.

Overview

ACEA E6-16 oils are low SAPS1 Ultra High Performance Diesel (UHPD) lubricants designed for use in severe duty, long drain applications.

ACEA recommends their use in vehicles fitted with aftertreatment systems for the reduction of particulate matter (DPFs) and oxides of nitrogen (EGR and/or SCR), in combination with low sulphur diesel fuel.

The main physical and chemical requirements for ACEA E6-16 are shown below:

RequirementMethodUnitLimit
HTHS viscosityCEC L-36-A-90mPa.s3.5
Sulphated AshASTM D874%wt1.0
PhosphorusASTM D5185%wt0.08
SulphurASTM D5185%wt0.3
Evaporation loss (NOACK)CEC L-40-A-93%13
Total Base NumberASTM D2896mgKOH/g7

ACEA E6-16 is usually coupled with Daimler MB-Approval 228.51 and MAN 3677, MTU oil category 3.1 and Deutz DQC IV-10 LA.

Typically Daimler, MAN, MTU and Deutz performance specifications build on top of an ACEA E6-16 with additional performance requirements in areas such as wear protection.

Note 1 : SAPS refers to Sulphated Ash, Phosphorus and Sulphur, the levels of which are often restricted in the latest performance specifications.

Changes

There are a number of changes to the requirements for ACEA E6-16 in the ACEA 2016 issue of the oil sequences. The changes for ACEA E6-16 are summarized below:

TestChange for ACEA 2016
CEC L-112New elastomers for the oil elastomer compatibility tests
CEC L-109New oxidation test with biodiesel
CEC L-104 (OM 646 Bio)New CEC L-104 Biodiesel impacted piston cleanliness and engine sludge test
CEC L-085-99 (PDSC)Limits established for ACEA E6
Shear Stability Test can now be run using CEC L-014-93 or ASTM D7019 for 30 cycles, and ASTM D7019 only for 90 cycles

Relative Performance

ACEA E6-16 and ACEA E4-16

The relative performance diagrams presented below compare Lubrizol’s interpretation of the performance of requirements of the ACEA 2016 E6-16 oil sequence with the ACEA 2016 E4-16 oil sequence.


ACEA-E6-16-vs-E4-16

This comparison illustrates how both sequences are expected to provide similar performance in terms of bore polish, soot handling and piston cleanliness. However, ACEA E6-16 is expected to have a greater level of corrosion protection, wear protection and the highest level of compatibility with advanced aftertreatment systems.

ACEA E6-16 and ACEA E9-16

The relative performance diagrams presented below compare Lubrizol's interpretation of the performance of requirements of the ACEA 2016 E6-16 oil sequence with the ACEA 2016 E9-16 oil sequence. The introduction of new biodiesel tests are reflected across the relevant axis in the performance tool.


ACEA-E6-16-vs-E9-16

This comparison illustrates how ACEA E6-16 is expected to provide a higher level of aftertreatment system compatibility and piston cleanliness. ACEA E9-16 has a greater level of corrosion protection, wear protection, soot handling and bore polish performance.

Click here to see Lubrizol’s Relative Performance Tool.

Overview

ACEA E7-16 oils are Super High Performance Diesel (SHPD) lubricants for use in mid-drain applications.

ACEA E7-16 contains many elements of the North American API CI-4 specification. ACEA E7 is the minimum performance requirement for heavy duty applications.

The main physical and chemical requirements for ACEA E7-16 are shown below:

RequirementMethodUnitLimit
HTHS viscosityCEC L-36-A-90mPa.s3.5
Sulphated AshASTM D874%wt2.0
Evaporation loss (NOACK)CEC L-40-A-93%13
Total Base NumberASTM D2896mgKOH/g≥91

ACEA E7-16 is usually coupled with Daimler MB-Approval 228.3, MAN M3275, Volvo VDS-3, MTU Oil Category 2 and Deutz DQC III-10.

The Daimler, MAN, Volvo and Deutz performance specifications all build on top of an ACEA E7-16 baseline with additional performance requirements in areas such as wear protection and deposit control.

Changes

A number of changes to the requirements for ACEA E7-16 have been introduced in the ACEA 2016 issue of the oil sequences.

The changes for ACEA E7-16 are summarized below:

TestChange for ACEA 2016
CEC L-112 New elastomers for the oil elastomer compatibility tests
CEC L-109 New oxidation test with biodiesel

Relative Performance

ACEA E4-16 and ACEA E7-16

The relative performance diagrams presented below compare Lubrizol's interpretation of the performance of requirements of the ACEA 2016 E7-16 oil sequence with the ACEA 2016 E4-16 oil sequence. The introduction of new biodiesel tests are reflected across the relevant axis in the performance tool.


E7-16 vs E4-16

This comparison illustrates how both sequences are expected to provide different performance with ACEA E7-16 providing lower bore polishing but a higher level of performance in terms of wear protection, soot handling and corrosion protection than ACEA E4-16.

ACEA E9-16 and ACEA E7-16

The relative performance diagrams presented below compare Lubrizol's interpretation of the performance of requirements of the ACEA 2016 E7-16 oil sequence with the ACEA 2016 E9-16 oil sequence.


ACEA-E9-16-vs-E7-16

This comparison illustrates how both sequences are expected to provide similar performance in terms of bore polishing and piston cleanliness. However, ACEA E9-16 is expected to provide a higher level of performance in terms of corrosion protection, soot handling, aftertreatment compatibility and wear protection than ACEA E7-16.

Click here to see Lubrizol’s Relative Performance Tool.

Overview

ACEA E9-16 is a mid SAPS1 requirement Ultra High Performance Diesel (UHPD) lubricants for use in mid drain applications. ACEA E9-16 contains many elements of the North American API CJ-4 specification.

ACEA recommend ACEA E9-16 for use in vehicles fitted with advanced exhaust aftertreatment systems for the reduction of particulate matter (DPFs) and the oxides of nitrogen (EGR and/or SCR) in combination with low sulphur diesel fuel.

The main physical and chemical requirements anticipated for ACEA E9-16 are shown below:

RequirementMethodUnitLimit
HTHS viscosityCEC L-36-A-90mPa.s3.5
Sulphated AshASTM D874%wt1.0
PhosphorusASTM D5185%wt0.12
SulphurASTM D5185%wt0.4
Evaporation loss (NOACK)CEC L-40-A-93%13
Total Base NumberASTM D2896mgKOH/g7

The requirements of the Cummins ISM test place emphasis on enhanced soot related wear control for ACEA E9-16. The removal of the Mack T-11 and inclusion of the Mack T8-E test now aligns E9-16 with other E categories with regard to soot handling performance requirements.

E9-16 anticipates baseline performance for Euro VI emission legislation, which has led to extensive adoption of DPFs on vehicles in Europe.

Note 1 : SAPS refers to Sulphated Ash, Phosphorus and Sulphur, the levels of which are often restricted in the latest performance specifications.

Changes

A number of changes to the requirements for ACEA E9-16 have been introduced in the ACEA 2016 issue of the oil sequences. The changes for ACEA E9-16 are summarised below:

TestChange for ACEA 2016
CEC L-112 New elastomers for the oil elastomer compatibility tests
CEC L-109 New oxidation test with biodiesel
CEC L-104 (OM 646 Bio) New CEC L-104 Biodiesel impacted piston cleanliness and engine sludge test
Shear Stability Test can now be run using CEC L-014-93 or ASTM D7019 for 30 cycles, and ASTM D7019 only for 90 cycles

Relative Performance

ACEA E9-16 and ACEA E7-16

The relative performance diagrams presented below compare Lubrizol's interpretation of the performance requirements of ACEA 2012 E9-16 oil sequence with the ACEA 2016 E7-16 oil sequence.


E9-16 vs E7-16

This comparison illustrates how both sequences are expected to provide similar performance in terms of bore polishing and piston cleanliness. However, ACEA E9-16 is expected to provide a higher level of performance in terms of corrosion protection, soot handling, aftertreatment compatibility and wear protection than ACEA E7-16.

ACEA E6-16 and ACEA E9-16

The relative performance diagrams presented below compare Lubrizol's interpretation of the performance of the ACEA 2016 E9-16 oil sequence with the ACEA 2016 E6-16 oil sequence. The introduction of new biodiesel tests are reflected across the relevant axis in the performance tool.


E9-16 vs E6-16

This comparison illustrates how ACEA E9-16 is expected to provide a greater level of corrosion protection, wear protection and soot handling than ACEA E6-16. ACEA E6-16 has a higher level of aftertreatment system compatibility, piston cleanliness and bore polish resistance.

Click here to see Lubrizol’s Relative Performance Tool.